Literally, maqasid shari'ah refers to the objective of shari'ah is to protect the well being of every human being lives in the Earth. Maqasid shari'ah itself developed through stages, like usul fiqh and fiqh. It did not established directly to be a single subject of study, but further developed from time to time until the time of Imam al-Shatibi,he recorded the maqasid shari'ah with complete explanations. Later on, more ulama' developed the conceptions of maqasid shari'ah until it is systematically arranged.
Maqasid shari'ah is an objective applied by the syara' to come out with a hukm, considering the public interests and also harmonizing the society as a whole. According to Ibnu Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, the purpose of shari'ah is to safeguard people's interest and well-being both in the worldly life and the Hereafter.
The maqasid shari'ah is divided into three branches:
- Al-Dharuriyyat- This basic theory comprises five main things; al-din, al-nafs, al-'aql, al-nasl and al-mal. Evry religious matter that has been decided based on these maslahah will work out smoothly. Without maslahah considering these matters, there will be the instability of the society and it will also bring punishment in the Hereafter.
- Al-Hajiyyat- It is important for the need of reducing or preventing harm and make a situation more convenience for the people. But, without it, it will not bring such instability of the society like the one in al-Daruriyyat. It will just bring a kind of hardship for an individual's life.
- Al-Tahsiyyat- To do good deeds and to practice good traditions. Without practicing it, it will not bring any harm or hardships to the society and individual, but it will not portray an individual's good way of life.
Maqasid shari'ah and education
Basically, maqasid shari'ah is significance of preserving human development and well being. It is considered as a blessing for all mankind because this system did not restricted to only Muslims or certain group of people, but it was introduced as an integral concept. It comprises improving one's life condition, preserving dignity and respect, brotherhood, social justice, uplift the people's spirit and moral, provide proper education for the people and others.
Maqasid shari'ah also explained the theory of faith enrichment. The society should be given proper motivation and proper education to strengthen their faith towards al-din. The education system must be based on the worldview subjects like tawheed, khilafah, risalah and also the knowledge about akhirah. This will be resulted with a good system of governance with the people became more educated, mainly enabling the environment of righteousness, integrity, solidarity and stability.
The preservation of education according to maqasid shari'ah is the enrichment of al-'aql. The government should provide a proper education system to the people and give financial support and provide enough facilities. Besides, the students should also be exposed into the idea of freedom of thoughts and expression. This will generate the establishment of new ideas towards the betterment of the country and ummah itself. What is more important is that the education should be a balance system between the religious education and the other sciences.
The ideal education system
- The idea of education by Muhammas Natsir (Indonesia's Fifth Prime Minister)
If I am to be the Minister of Education of a state, I will refer to Muhammad Natsir's idea of education system. According to Muhammad Natsir, the Quran and Sunnah should be the main sources of knowledge, always encouraging people to learn and to observe knowledge. Knowledge and Islam can help to improve someone's faith and would trigger the spirit of seeking knowledge more. An Islamic education system would promote the idea of 'abid and khalifah al-ard, which would drive mankind towards being a good servant of Allah and to act as a proper leader in the world.
Besides, an Islamic education system would be a balance system, weighing between the religious understanding and the other sciences. But the sciences should be the sciences directed people towards morality and good deeds; be the intermediary between the triangle relationship of (Allah- Human beings- Environment). This kind of education system will help to strengthen the paradigm and intellectual premises that centered to the well-being and improvement of the society.
Moreover, Islamic education never recognized the restrictions of education, which means that kind of act will made Islam to be seen as a religion of restrictions. So, Islam encourages the development of new ideas in various fields, as long as it is not opposing the Quran and Sunnah.
Muhammad Natsir's is really impressing when he revised the education system of Indonesia and made all schools to adopt Islamic subjects in the learning sessions, to prevent students from not knowing religion. This act seems had manage to balance the education system of Indonesia at that time. He also encouraged the establishment of Islamic schools that teach religious subjects besides highlighting the other modern subjects like mathematics, geography, history, literature and others.